宋克義 研究員

宋克義(Keryea Soong) 研究員


電話:+886-7-5255109 (辦公室)

           +886-7-5252000, x.5109 (辦公室)

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碩士 1979台灣大學海洋研究所生物組

博士 1990德州大學奧斯丁分校 University of Texas at Austin



Nov. 1979-Aug.1981, 水垢生物研究

Aug. 1981-June 1983, 研究助理,中央研究院動物研究所, 海洋生態/潛水作業

Jul. 1983-Jul. 1984, 中山大學海洋資源學系講師

Aug. 1984-Feb. 1990 德州大學奧斯丁分校,博士班學生/助教

Jun. 1985-Jul. 1985 巴拿馬史密森熱帶研究所,博士論文研究

Jun. 1986-Aug. 1986 美國處女群島野外工作

Aug. 1986 牙買加Discovery Bay Marine Lab 野外工作

Jun. 1987-Aug 1988 巴拿馬史密森熱帶研究所博士論文野外工作

Feb. 1990-Aug 1994 中山大學海洋生物研究所副教授

Aug. 1994-July 1997中山大學海洋生物研究所教授 (高雄)

Nov. 1998-2000 台灣珊瑚礁學會理事長

Aug. 1999-July, 2002, Aug. 2010-July 2013中山大學海洋生物研究所教授兼所長

Aug 2003-Jul 2004 佛羅里達州立大學訪問教授

Jan. 2007- 2011 內政部國家公園委員

Nov, 2012-present 東沙國際海洋研究站主持人

Aug 2013-present中山大學海洋科學系教授

2017-2018 桃園藻礁生態研究



1990 巴拿馬珊瑚繁殖方式(博士論文)

1996-1998 南灣海域珊瑚人工培育及復育計劃



2012-2017 東沙環礁研究站國際合作研究

2018- 南海雙島(東沙島/太平島)珊瑚礁國際合作研究

教授課程: 演化論、海洋生態、珊瑚礁、族群遺傳、演化生態學、海洋生物多樣性、環礁生態、田野研究

研究興趣: 珊瑚礁、月律動、搖蚊、性別轉換

近年來發表之代表著作 ( Recent Representative Publications )


  1. Zoological Studies, Coral Reefs, Marine Ecology Progress Series, Deep-Sea Research, Marine Biology, Aquaculture, Bulletin of Marine Science, Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, The Open Ecology, AMBI, Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, Journal of Marine Biology (Israel), Ambio, Restoration Ecology, Aquatic Conservation, PLoS.

學術著作 ( * indicates non-first, corresponding author)

  1. Soong KY, Chen CP, Chang KH. Tan TH (1981) Settling of oysters (Crassostrea gigas Thunberg) and barnacles (Balanus amphitrite albicostatus Pilsbry) in Shun-Sun. Report of Institute of Fisheries Biology (National Taiwan Universities) 3:103-113 (ROC).

  2. Soong KY and Chang KH.(1983) The coral-inhabiting barnacles (Crustacea: Thoracica: Pyrgomatidae) from southernmost coast of Taiwan. Bulletin of Institute Zoology, Academia Sinica 22:243-53 (ROC).

  3. Fang LH, Chen YW. and Soong KY (1987) Methodology and measurement of ATP in coral. Bulletin Marine Science 41:605-10 (USA).

  4. McMillan C, Soong K (1989) An annual cycle of flowering, fruiting and seed reserve for Halophila decipiens Ostenfeld (Hydrocharitaceae) in Panama. Aquatic Botany 34:375-9 (The Netherlands)

  5. Soong K (1990) Reproduction of colonial reef corals: individuality of coral colonies and colony size related characters. Ph D dissertation, University of Texas at Austin (USA)

  6. Soong K and Chen JL (1991) Population structure and sex change of coral-inhabiting snail, Coralliophila violacea, at Hsiao-Liuchiu, Taiwan. Marine Biology 106:81-86 (Germany).

  7. Soong K (1991) Sexual reproductive patterns of shallow-water reef corals in Panama. Bulletin of Marine Science 49(3):832-846 (USA).

  8. Soong K, Liu LL, Chen JL, and Chen CP (1992) Regional differences of oyster (Crassostrea gigas, Thunberg) size and shape in Taiwan. Bulletin of Institute Zoology, Academia Sinica 31:111-119 (ROC).

  9. Wu Y-C, Hsieh P-W, Duh C-Y, Wang S-K, Soong K, Fang L-S (1992) Studies on the formosan soft corals I-cytotoxic cembrane diterpenes from Sarcophyton trocheliophorum. Journal of Chinese Chemical Society 39:355-357 (ROC).

  10. Soong K and Changlie M-L (1992) Rediscovery of Megabalanus stultus (Darwin, 1854) (Crustacea : Thoracica : Balanidae) - a fire coral symbiont, in the Pacific. Crustaceana 63(1):23-28 (The Netherland).

  11. Wang S-K, Duh C-Y, Wu Y-C, Wang Y, Cheng M-C, Soong K and Fang L-S (1992) Studies on Formosan soft corals II. Cytotoxic cembranolides from the soft coral, Lobophytum michaelae. Journal of Natural Products 55(10):1430-1435 (USA).

  12. Soong K. and Lang JC (1992) Reproductive integration in reef corals. Biological Bulletin 183:418-431 (USA).

  13. Soong K (1992) Occurrence of the Giant Isopod Bathynomus giganteus Milne-Edwards, 1879 (Flabellifera: Cirolanidae) in the West Pacific. Crustaceana 63(3):291-295 (The Netherland).

  14. Dai CF, Soong K. and Fan TY (1992) Sexual reproduction of corals in northern and southern Taiwan. Proceedings of the 7th Coral Reef Symposium, Guam 1: 448-455 (USA).

  15. Soong K (1993) Colony size as a species character of reef corals. Coral Reefs 12:77-83 (USA).

  16. Duh C-Y, Hou R-S, Wang S-K, Chang T-T, Wang Y, Lee G-H, Soong K. and Fang L-S, (1993) Studies on Formosan soft corals III. Cytotoxic norcembrene diterpenes from the soft coral, Sinularia polydactyla. Chinese Pharmaceutical Journal 45(5):399-407 (ROC).

  17. Soong K. and Mok H.K (1994) Some size and maturity stage observations of the deep-sea isopod, Bathynomus doederleini Ortmann, 1894 (Flabellifera: Cirolanidae), in eastern Taiwan. Journal of Crustacean Biology 14(1):360-367 (USA).

  18. Duh C-Y, Wang S-K, Soong K, Fang L-S (1994) Cytotoxic norcembrene diterpenes from the soft coral Sinularia inexplicita. Chinese Pharmaceutical Journal 46(5): 423-428 (ROC).

  19. Liu LL, Soong K, Chen C-P (1995) Allozyme variation in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas along the coast of Taiwan. Zoological Studies 34(3): 177-182 (ROC).

  20. Duh C-Y, Hou R-S, Liu C-H, Soong K (1995) Potential anticancer cembranolide diterpenes from formosan marine soft coral Sinularia flexibilis. Acta Oceanographica Taiwanica 34:71-78 (ROC).

  21. Sheu JH, Sung B-J, Huang L-H, Lee S-F, Wu T, Chang B-Y, Duh CY, Fang L-S, Soong K, Lee T-J (1996) New cytotoxic briaran diterpenes from the formosan gorgonian Briareum sp. Journal of Natural Products 59:935-938 (USA)

  22. Soong K (1997) Some life history observations of the pea crab, Pinotheres tsingtaoensis, symbiotic with the bivalve, Sanguinolaria acuta. Crustaceana 70:855-866 (The Netherland)

  23. Soong K, Shen Y, Tseng S-H, Chen C-P (1997) Regeneration and potential functional differentiation of arms in brittlestar, Ophiocoma scolopendrina (Lamarck) (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea). Zoological Studies. 36(2):90-97 (ROC)

  24. Nishikawa T, Shirai H, Chen Y, Dai C-F, Nohara M, Soong K (1997) First find of Epigonichthys maldivensis (Cooper) and rediscovery of E. lucayanus (Andrews) from Nanwan Bay, Southern Taiwan (Cephalochordata). Benthos Research 52(2):103-109 (Japan)

  25. Soong K, Cho L-C (1998) Synchronized release of medusae from three species of fire corals. Coral Reefs 17: 145-154 (USA)

  26. Chen M-H, Yang Y-W, Soong K.(1998) Preliminary observations on change of sex by the coral-inhabiting snails Coralliophila violacea (Lamarck) (Gastropoda: Coralliophilidae). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 230:207-212 (USA)

  27. Soong K, Chen CA, Chang J-C (1999) The very large poritid colony at Green Island, Taiwan. Coral Reefs 19:42 (USA)

  28. Soong K, Shiau Y-S, Chen C-P (1999) Morphological and life history divergence of the zoanthic, Sphenopus marsupialis off Taiwanese coast. Zoological Studies 38(3):333-343 (ROC)

  29. Soong K. Chen G-F, Cao J-R (1999) Life history studies on the flightless marine midges Pontomyia spp (Diptera: Chironomidae). Zoological Studies: 38(4):465-472 (ROC)

  30. Chen M-H, Soong K.* (2000) Sex change in the hat snail, Calyptraea morbida Reeve (Gastropoda: Calyptraeidae): an analysis of substratum, size, and reproductive characteristics. The Veliger 43:210-217 (USA)

  31. Chen C-T, Wang CH, Soong K, Wang BJ (2001) Water temperature records from corals near the nuclear power plant in southern Taiwan. Science in China (sec. D) 44(4):356-362.

  32. Chen M-H, Soong K (2002) Estimation of age in the sex-changing, coral-inhabiting snail Coralliophila violacea (Lamarck) from the growth striae on opercula and a mark-recapture experiment. Marine Biology 140:337-342.

  33. Jaubert JM, Soong K (2002) Coral reef regeneration. In Encyclopedia of life support systems. Developed under the Auspices of the UNESCO, Eolss publishers, Oxford, UK [http://www.eolss.net].

  34. Fang LS, Soong K (2002) Coral reefs as a life supporting systems. In Encyclopedia of life support systems. Developed under the Auspices of the UNESCO, Eolss publishers, Oxford, UK [http://www.eolss.net].

  35. Soong K. and Chen TA (2003) Coral transplantation: regeneration and growth of Acropora fragments in a nursery. Restoration Ecology 11:62-71

  36. Soong K, Chen MH (2003) Sex expression of an immobile coral-inhabiting snail Quoyula monodonta. Marine Biology 143(2): 351-358. DOI10.1007/s00227-003-1098-4

  37. Soong K, Chen M.H, Chen CL, Dai CF, Fan TY, Li J.J, Fan HM, Kuo KM, Hsieh H (2003) Spatial and temporal variation of coral recruitment in Taiwan. Coral Reefs 22(3):224-228

  38. Sheu JH, Wang GH, Duh CY, Soong K (2003) Pachyclavulariolides M-R, six novel diterpenoids from a Taiwanese soft coral Pachyclavularia violacea. Journal of Natural Products 66 (5): 662-666

  39. Chen M-H, Soong K, Tsai M-L (2004) Host effect on size structure and timing of sex change in the coral-inhabiting snail Coralliophila violacea. Marine Biology 144:287-293

  40. Huang MNL, Lin CS, Soong K (2004) Factor effects testing for mixture distributions with an application to the study of emergence of Pontomyia oceana. Journal of Data Science 2(3): 213-230

  41. Chen M-H, Chiu Y-W, Alf A, Soong K, Li JJ (2004) Species and abundance of the edible turban snails Turbo spp. In intertidal areas of Hengchun Peninsula, southern Taiwan. Journal of National Parks 14(1):1-9.

  42. Soong K (2005) Reproduction and colony integration of the sea pen Virgularia juncea. Marine Biology 146(6):1103-1109

  43. Soong K, Leu Y (2005) Adaptive mechanism of the bimodal emergence dates in the intertidal midge Pontomyia oceana (Diptera: Chironomidae). Marine Ecology Progress Series 28:107-114

  44. Soong K, Chang D, Chao S-M (2005) Presence of spawn-inducing pheromones in two brittle stars (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea). Marine Ecology Progress Series 292:195-201

  45. Soong K, Chen J, Tsao JZ (2006) Adaptation for accuracy or for precision? Diel emergence timing of the intertidal insect Pontomyia oceana (Chironomidae). Marine Biology 150:173-181

  46. Fan TY, Lin KH, Kuo FW, Liu LL 2006 Diel patterns of larval release by five brooding scleractinian corals. Marine Ecology Progress Series 321: 133-142

  47. Chen HY, Ho SH, Chen TI, Soong K, Chen IM, Cheng JH 2007 Identification of a Female-Specific Hemocyanin in the Mud Crab, Scylla olivacea (Crustacea: Portunidae). Zoological Studies 46(2):194-202

  48. Wang LT, Wang SK, Soong K, Duh CY 2007 New cytotoxic cembranolides from the soft coral Lobophytum michaelae. Chemical Pharmaceutical Bulletin 55(5):766-770

  49. Liao MH, Tang SL, Hsu CM, Wen KC, Wu H, Chen WM, Wang JT, Meng PJ, Twan WH, Dai CF, Soong K, Chen CA 2007 The “Black Disease” of Reef-Building Corals at Green Island, Taiwan ---Outbreak of a Cyanobacteriosponge, Terpios hoshinota (Suberitidae; Hadromerida). Zoological Studies 46:520

  50. Chen C-H, Soong K, Chen CA 2008 The smallest oocytes of broadcasting actiniarians and unique lunar reproductive cycle in a unisexual population of the sea anemone, Aiptasia pulchella (Anthozoa: Actiniaria). Zoological Studies 47 (1): 37-45

  51. De Voogd N, Soong K* (2008) Phylum Porifera in Taiwan species diversity - II Species list. pp.287-288. Forest Bureau, Council of Agriculture, Taiwan, R OC

  52. De Voogd N, Soong K* (2008) Sponge fauna in southwest Green Island, Taiwan" in "2008 Taiwan species diversity - I. Research Status", pp. 308, Forest Bureau, Council of Agriculture, Taiwan, ROC

  53. Soong K, Lin YJ, Chao SM, Chang D (2009) Spawning time of two shallow-water brittle stars. Marine Ecology Progress Series 376:165-

  54. Wang SK, Duh CY, Wu YC, Wang Y, Cheng MC, Soong K, Fang LS (2009) Cytotoxic cembranoids from the soft coral Lobophytum michaelae(vol 55, pg 1430, 1992). Journal of Natural Products 72(2):324-324

  55. Soong K, Yang SL, Chen CA (2009) A novel dispersal mechanism of the coral-threatening sponge Terpios hoshinota. Zoological Studies 48(5): 596

  56. Lin YJ, Soong K* 2009 Spawning behaviors of two congeneric brittle stars. Marine Ecology Progress Series 387:157-165

  57. Lin WJ, Soong K* (2009) Growth and prevention experiments of Terpios hoshinota surrounding Green Island. Journal of National Parks (Taiwan) 19(1): 46-57 (in Chinese, with English abstract)

  58. Chen BC, Soong K* (2010) “Uncovering” behavior at spawning of the reef-dwelling trumpet sea urchin. Zoological Studies 49(1):9

  59. Kao C-C, Chen J, Chen G-F Soong K* (2010) Variable swarming time of an intertidal midge is controlled by a circadian clock and temperature. Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology 43(1):1-9

  60. Tkachenko KS, Soong K* (2010) Protection or habitat types: a case study of effectiveness of a small marine reserve and impacts of different habitats on diversity and abundance of coral reef fishes. Zoological Studies 49(2):195-210

  61. Kuo KM, Soong K* (2010) Post-Settlement Survival of Reef Coral Juveniles in Southern Taiwan. Zoological Studies 49(6):724-734

  62. Soong K, Lee YJ, Chang I-H (2011) Short-Lived Intertidal Midge Pontomyia oceana Have Semilunar Eclosion Rhythm Entrained by Night-light. Marine Ecology Progress Series 433:121-130

  63. Benayahu Y, van Ofwegen LP, Dai CF,Jeng MS, Soong K, Shlagman A, Hsieh HJ, McFadden CS (2012) Diversity, Distribution, and Molecular Systematics of Octocorals (Coelenterata: Anthozoa) of the Penghu Archipelago, Taiwan. Zoological Studies 51(8): 1529-1548

  64. Chen C, Chang HY, Soong K 2012 No Tradeoff between Sexual and Asexual Investments in the Sea Anemone Aiptasia pulchella (Anthozoa: Actiniaria). Zoological Studies 51: 996-1005

  65. Soong K, Chang I-H (2012) Period of semilunar rhythm is based on counting endogenous circadian cycles. Chronobiology International 29(10):1329-35

  66. Soong K (2012) Houbihu MPA, the first one beyond the paper, in Taiwan. Kuroshio Science 6: 25-26.

  67. Lin C-H, Soong K, Fan, T-Y (2013) Hourglass Mechanism with Temperature Compensation in the Diel Periodicity of Planulation of the Coral, Seriatopora hystrix . PLoS ONE 8(9), e64584

  68. Soong K, Chiu ST, Chen CNN (2013) Novel seed adaptations of a monocotyledon seagrass in the wavy sea. PLoS ONE 8(9), e74143

  69. Chavanich S, Soong K, Avuloni A, Rinkevich B, Alino P (2015) Conservation, management, and restoration of coral reefs. Zoology 118: 132-134. DOI: 10.1016/j.zool.2015.01.002.

  70. Chiu BH, Soong K, Chen NCN (2016): Cultivation of two thermotolerant microalgae under tropical conditions: Influences of carbon sources and light duration on biomass and lutein productivity in four seasons. Bioresource Technology BITE-D-16-01119R2

  71. Chang CJ, Chen NCN, Soong K*, (2016) Long Distance Dispersal Potential of Two Seagrasses Thalassia hemprichii and Halophila ovalis. PLoS ONE

  72. Wu K, Chen CNN, & Soong K (2016). Long distance dispersal potential of two seagrasses Thalassia hemprichii and Halophila ovalis. PloS one, 11(6), e0156585

  73. Fan TY, Hsieh YC, Lin KH, Kuo FW, Soong K, McRae CJ, Edmunds PJ, Fang LS (2017) Plasticity in lunar timing of larval release of two brooding pocilloporid corals in an internal tide-induced upwelling reef. Marine Ecology Progress Series. doi:10.1038/srep44586

  74. DeCarlo T, Cohen, A, Wong G, Davis K, Lohmann P, Soong K (2017) Mass coral mortality under local amplification of 2 °C ocean warming. Scientific Reports DOI 10.1038/srep44586

  75. Reimer JD, Santos MEA, Kise H, Neo ML, Chen, CA, Soong K (2017) Diversity of Zoantharia (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia) at Dongsha Atoll in the South China Sea. Regional Studies in Marine Science 10.1016/j.rsma.2017.02.006

  76. Tkachenko KS, Soong K 2017 Dongsha Atoll: A potential thermal refuge for reef-building corals in the South China Sea. Mar Environ Res. 127: 112-125

  77. Hsu C-H, Soong K 2017 Mechanisms causing size differences of the land hermit crab Coenobita rugosus among eco-islands in Southern Taiwan. PLOS One https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0174319

  78. Keshavmurthy S, Tang KH, Hsu CM, Soong K, CA Chen 2017. Symbiodinium spp. associated with scleractinian corals from Dongsha Atoll (Pratas), Taiwan, in the South China Sea. Peer J 5: e2871

  79. Sun YZ, Kurtán T, Mándi A, Tang H, Chou Y, Soong K, ... & Zhang W (2017). Immunomodulatory polyketides from a Phoma-like fungus isolated from a soft coral. Journal of Natural Products, 80(11), 2930-2940

  80. Benayahu Y, van Ofwegen LP, Dai CF, Jeng MS, Soong K, Shlagman A, ... & Wu, T (2018). The Octocorals of Dongsha Atoll (South China Sea): An Iterative Approach to Species Identification Using Classical Taxonomy and Molecular Barcodes. Zoological Studies, 57(50)

  81. Wang J, Xu CC, Tang H, Su L, Chou Y, Soong K, ... & Zhang W (2018). Osteoclastogenesis Inhibitory Polyketides from the Sponge‐Associated Fungus Xylaria feejeensis. Chemistry & Biodiversity, 15(12), e1800358

  82. Neo ML, Liu LL, Huang D, & Soong K (2018). Thriving populations with low genetic diversity in giant clam species, Tridacna maxima and Tridacna noae, at Dongsha Atoll, South China Sea. Regional Studies in Marine Science, 24, 278-287

  83. Chou WC, Chu HC, Chen YH, Syu RW, Hung CC, & Soong K (2018). Short-term variability of carbon chemistry in two contrasting seagrass meadows at Dongsha Island: Implications for pH buffering and CO2 sequestration. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 210, 36-44

  84. Gajdzik L, Parmentier E, Michel LN, Sturaro N, Soong K, Lepoint G, & Frédérich B (2018). Similar levels of trophic and functional diversity within damselfish assemblages across Indo‐Pacific coral reefs. Functional Ecology, 32(5), 1358-1369